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Quick Q: How can a class template store either reference or value?

Quick A: This happen by default.

Recently on SO:

How can a class template store either reference or value?

You already wrote it (minus the required template <typename T>). The deduction rules for a forwarding reference preserve value category as follows:

  1. If t is bound to an lvalue of type T2, then T = T2&.
  2. If t is bound to an rvalue of type T2, then T = T2.

It's those deduction rules that std::forward relies on to do its job. And why we need to pass the type to it as well.

The above means that you instantiate holder directly with T2 in the rvalue case. Giving you exactly what you want. A copy is made.

As a matter of fact, two copies are made. Once to create the constructor argument t, and the other copy is to initialize obj_m from it. But we can get rid of it with some clever use of type_traits:

template <class T>
class holder {
    T  obj_m;  // should be a reference if possible...
    holder(std::add_rvalue_reference_t<T> t) :obj_m { std::forward<T>(t) } {}

template<typename T>
auto hold_this(T && t) { return holder<T>(std::forward<T>(t)); }

See it live. We use add_rvalue_reference_t to make t be of the correct reference type in each case. And "simulate" the argument deduction which would make obj_m { std::forward<T>(t) } resolve to initializing obj_m from the correct reference type.

I say "simulate" because it's important to understand the constructor argument for holder cannot be a forwarding reference because the constructor itself is not templated.

By the way, since you tagged c++17, we can also add a deduction guide to your example. If we define it as follows (with the feedback from T.C. incorporated):

template <class T>
class holder {
    T  obj_m;  // should be a reference if possible...
    holder(T&& t) :obj_m { std::forward<T>(t) } {}

template<typename T>
holder(T&&) -> holder<T>;

Then this live example shows you can define variables as hold h1{t}; and hold h2{test()};, with the same deduced types as the function return values from before.

Quick Q: In C++ are static member functions inherited? If yes why ambiguity error does not arise?

Quick A: Yes, and there are no ambiguity with static members.

Recently on SO:

In C++ are static member functions inherited? If yes why ambiguity error does not arise?

It's fine according to the lookup rules. You see, when you write member access (obj.display();), the member display is looked up not just in the scope of the class and its base classes. Base class sub-objects are taken into consideration as well.

If the member being looked up is not static, since base class sub-objects are part of the consideration, and you have two sub-objects of the same type, there's an ambiguity in the lookup.

But when they are static, there is no ambiguity. And to make it perfectly clear, the C++ standard even has a (non-normative) example when it describes class member lookup (in the section [class.member.lookup])

Quick Q: Most concise way to disable copy and move semantics

Quick A: Delete the move assignment.

Recently on SO:

Most concise way to disable copy and move semantics

According to this chart (by Howard Hinnant):

The most concise way is to =delete move assignment operator (or move constructor, but it can cause problems mentioned in comments).

Though, in my opinion the most readable way is to =delete both copy constructor and copy assignment operator.

Factory With Self-Registering Types—Bartlomiej Filipek

Let’s see how classes can register themselves in a factory and what are the examples where it’s used.

Factory With Self-Registering Types

by Bartlomiej Filipek

From the article:

In this post, I’ve covered a type of factory where types register themselves. It’s an opposite way of simple factories where all the types are declared upfront. Such approach gives more flexibility and removes dependency on the exact list of supported classes from the factory.

Read-Compile-Run-Loop - a tiny embeddable REPL analog for C++—Viktor Kirilov

Most scripting languages have REPLs (read-eval-print-loop) - an interactive console.

Read-Compile-Run-Loop - a tiny embeddable REPL analog for C++

by Viktor Kirilov

From the article:

Ever wanted to modify some value or execute some (complex) statement while your C++ program is running just to test something out? Something that cannot be done through the debugger or wouldn’t be trivial? Scripting languages have REPLs and it's time for C++ to get one too.

To RAII or Not to RAII?—Jonathan Boccara

Good question.

To RAII or Not to RAII?

by Jonathan Boccara

From the article:

RAII is a central concept in C++, that consists in relying on the compiler to call destructors automatically in certain cases. Putting appropriate code in such destructors then relieves us from calling that code – the compiler does it for us.

RAII is an idiomatic technique of C++, but can we use RAII for everything? Is it a good idea to shift every possible piece of code to the destructor of some class, to leave the work to the compiler and make calling code as light as can be?

Since this question comes down to asking if the proverbial hammer is a tool fit for every single task, the answer to that question is probably the proverbial No.

But then, in which cases would RAII improve the design of a piece of code?

In this article we’ll see a case where RAII is adapted, then a case where RAII is NOT adapted. And after that we’ll see a case open to discussion. We’ll then conclude with how to use levels of abstractions to make the decision to RAII or not to RAII...

Overload 143 is now available

ACCU’s Overload journal of February 2018 is out. It contains the following C++ related articles.

Overload 143 is now available

From the journal:

Hapaxes, Singletons and Anomalies
Programmers can be odd. Frances Buontempo celebrates many manifold peculiarities. by Frances Buontempo

A Wider Vision of Software Development
Is code a hopeful arrangement of bytes? Charles Tolman brings his Organising Principles series to a close. by Charles Tolman

An MWSR Queue with Minimalist Locking
Multithreaded queues come in many flavours. Sergey Ignatchenko describes his implementation of a multiple writer single reader queue. by Sergey Ignatchenko

Testing: Choose the Right Level
Testing can be easy. Andy Balaam considers levels to keep your focus just right. by Andy Balaam

CTAD – What Is This New Acronym All About?
What is class template argument deduction? Roger Orr elucidates this new C++17 feature. by Roger Orr

C++ with Meta-classes?
Meta-classes will allow us to detail class requirements. Francis Glassborow compares them to developments of C++ in the 1990s. by Francis Glassborow

Practical Scale Testing
Everyone wants scalable systems. Arun Saha explores methods for testing scalability. by Arun Saha

Functional Error-Handling with Optional and Expected
Exceptions should be exceptional. Simon Brand shows modern alternatives from the standard library and ways to improve them. by Simon Brand

Introduction to the C++ Ranges Library—Jonathan Boccara

You can read it or watch it.

Introduction to the C++ Ranges Library

by Jonathan Boccara

From the article:

Do you know the ranges library in C++?

This video will show what limitations of the STL it solves, and how it can make C++ code more expressive.

Since some of you expressed that they liked text more than videos, I’ve included a transcript of the video. I’d be glad to know if you find this useful, and if you’d like to have a transcript for other videos...

CopperSpice: Threads and Containers

New videos on the CopperSpice YouTube Channel:

Modern C++ Threads

by Barbara Geller and Ansel Sermersheim

About the video:

An overview of the C++11 threading library, including a discussion of why the C++11 memory model is so important. We also present information about atomics and the abstraction of multithreaded design.

What's in a container?

by Barbara Geller and Ansel Sermersheim

About the video:

A practical look at how containers are implemented in C++, including a discussion of when you should implement your own container, the potential pitfalls of hand-rolled containers, why Copy-On-Write is a bad idea and disallowed for containers in the standard library, and how to implement your own container adapters.

Please take a look and remember to subscribe!