ISO/IEC JTC1 SC22 WG21 P0636r0

Date: 2017-04-02

To: the public

Thomas Köppe <tkoeppe@google.com>

Changes between C++14 and C++17 DIS

Abstract

This document enumerates all the major changes that have been applied to the C++ working draft since the publication of C++14, up to the publication of the C++17 DIS (N4660). Major changes are those that were added in the form of a dedicated paper, excluding those papers that are large issue resolutions. No issue resolutions from either CWG or LWG issues lists (“defect reports”) are included.

Contents

  1. Removed or deprecated features
  2. New core language features with global applicability
  3. New core language features with local applicability
  4. New library features
  5. Modifications to existing features
  6. Miscellaneous
  7. Unlisted papers
  8. Assorted snippets demonstrating C++17

Removed or deprecated features

DocumentSummaryExamples, notes
N4086 Remove trigraphs The sequence ??! no longer means |. Implementations may offer trigraph-like features as part of their input encoding.
P0001R1 Remove register The register keyword remains reserved, but it no longer has any semantics.
P0002R1 Remove ++ for bool Increment (++) prefix and postfix expressions are no longer valid for operands of type bool.
P0003R5 Remove throw(A, B, C) Dynamic exception specifications of the form throw(A, B, C) are no longer valid. Only throw() remains as a synonym for noexcept(true). Note the change in termination semantics.
P0386R2 Deprecate redeclaration of static constexpr class members Given struct X { static constexpr int n = 10; };, int X::n; is no longer a definition, but instead a redundant redeclaration, which is deprecated. The member X::n is implicitly inline (see below).
N4190 Remove auto_ptr, random_shuffle, old parts of <functional> Features that have been deprecated since C++11 and replaced with superior components are no longer included. Their names remain reserved, and implementations may choose to continue to ship the features.
P0004R1 Remove deprecated iostream aliases Same as above
P0302R1 Remove allocator support from function The polymorphic function wrapper function no longer has constructors that accept an allocator. Allocator support for type-erasing, copyable types is difficult, and possibly not implementable efficiently.
P0063R3 (see below) Deprecate C library headers The following headers of the “C library” (this is the term for a part of the C++ standard library, not a part of the C standard!) are now deprecated: <ccomplex>, <cstdalign>, <cstdbool>, <ctgmath>. Note that the header <ciso646> is not deprecated.
P0174R2 Deprecate old library parts These library components are now deprecated: allocator<void>, raw_storage_iterator, get_temporary_buffer, is_literal_type, std::iterator.
P0618R0 Deprecate <codecvt> The entire header <codecvt> (which does not contain the class codecvt!) is deprecated, as are the utilities wstring_convert and wbuffer_convert. These features are hard to use correctly, and there are doubts whether they are even specified correctly. Users should use dedicated text-processing libraries instead.
P0371R1 Deprecate memory_order_consume temporarily The current semantics of “consume” ordering have been found inadequate, and the ordering needs to be redefined. While this work is in progress, hopefully ready for the next revision of C++, users are encouraged to not use this ordering and instead use “acquire” ordering, so as to not be exposed to a breaking change in the future.
P0521R0 Deprecate shared_ptr::unique This member function suggests behaviour that is not actually provided.
P0604R0 Deprecate result_of Use the new trait invoke_result instead.

New core language features with global applicability

These are features that may happen to you without your knowledge or consent.

DocumentSummaryExamples, notes
P0012R1 Exception specification as part of the type system The exception specification of a function is now part of the function’s type: void f() noexcept(true); and void f() noexcept(false); are functions of two distinct types. Function pointers are convertible in the sensible direction. (But the two functions f may not form an overload set.) This change strengthens the type system, e.g. by allowing APIs to require non-throwing callbacks.
P0135R1 Guaranteed copy elision The meaning of prvalue and glvalue has been revised, prvalues are no longer objects, but merely “initialization”. Functions returning prvalues no longer copy objects (“mandatory copy elision”), and there is a new prvalue-to-glvalue conversion called temporary materialization conversion. This change means that copy elision is now guaranteed, and even applies to types that are not copyable or movable. This allows you to define functions that return such types.
P0035R4 Dynamic allocation of over-aligned types Dynamic allocation (operator new) may now support over-aligned types, and a new overload of the operator takes an alignment parameter. It is still up to the implementation to choose which alignments to support.
P0145R3 Stricter order of expression evaluation The order of evaluation of certain subexpressions has been specified more than it used to be. An important particular aspect of this change is that function arguments are now evaluated in an indeterminate order (i.e. no interleaving), which was previously merely unspecified. Note that the evaluation order for overloaded operators depends on how they are invoked: when invoked using operator syntax, the order is the same as for the built-in operator, but when invoked using function call syntax, the order is the same as for ordinary function calls (i.e. indeterminate).

New core language features with local applicability

These are features where you would know if you were using them.

DocumentSummaryExamples, notes
N4267 A u8 character literal A character literal prefix u8 creates a character that is a valid Unicode code point that takes one code unit of UTF-8, i.e. an ASCII value: u8'x'
P0245R1 Hexadecimal floating point literals Floating point literals with hexadecimal base and decimal exponent: 0xC.68p+2, 0x1.P-126. C has supported this syntax since C99, and printf supports it via %a.
N4295, P0036R0 Fold expressions A convenient syntax for applying a binary operator iteratively to the elements of a parameter pack: template <typename ...Args> auto f(Args ...args) { return (0 + ... + args); }
P0127R2 template <auto> A non-type template parameter may now be declared with placeholder type auto. Examples:
 •  template <auto X> struct constant { static constexpr auto value = X; };
 •  Delegate<&MyClass::some_function>
P0091R3, P0433R2, P0512R0, P0620R0 Class template argument deduction The template arguments of a class template may now be deduced from a constructor. For example, pair p(1, 'x'); defines p as pair<int, char> (this is not an HTML error, the template arguments were omitted deliberately). The implicit deduction is complemented by a system of explicit deduction guides which allow authors to customise how the deduction happens, or forbid it.
P0292R2 Constexpr if In a template specialization, the arms of the new if constexpr (condition) statement are only instantiated if the condition (which must be a constant expression) has the appropriate value.
P0305R1 Selection statements with initializer The selection statements if and switch gain a new, optional initializer part: if (auto it = m.find(key); it != m.end()) return it->second;
P0170R1 Constexpr lambdas Lambda expressions may now be constant expressions: auto add = [](int a, int b) constexpr { return a + b; }; int arr[add(1, 2)];
P0018R3 Lambda capture of *this Before: [self = *this]{ self.f(); } Now: [*this]{ f(); }
P0386R2 Inline variables In a header file: inline int n = 10; All definitions refer to the same entity. Implied for static constexpr class data members.
P0217R3, P0615R0 Structured bindings auto [it, ins] = m.try_emplace(key, a1, a2, a3);
Decomposes arrays, all-members-public classes, and user-defined types that follow a get<N> protocol like pair and tuple.
P0061R1 __has_include A preprocessor operator to check whether an inclusion is possible.
P0188R1
P0189R1
P0212R1
Attribute [[fallthrough]]
Attribute [[nodiscard]]
Attribute [[maybe_unused]]
A new set of standardised attributes. The attributes formally have no required semantics, but implementations are encouraged to emit or suppress the appropriate diagnostics (warnings).
P0137R1 launder A language support tool (an “optimisation barrier”) to allow libraries to reuse storage and access that storage through an old pointer, which was previously not allowed. (This is an expert tool for implementers and not expected to show up in “normal” code.)
P0298R3 A byte type A new type byte is defined in <cstddef> (not in <stddef.h>, and only in namespace std!) which has the layout of unsigned char, shares the aliasing allowances of the existing char types, and has bitwise operations defined.

New library features

DocumentSummaryExamples, notes
P0226R1 Mathematical special functions The contents of the former international standard ISO/IEC 29124:2010 (mathematical special functions) are now part of C++. The functions were added only to <cmath>, not to <math.h>, and are only available in namespace std.
P0218R0, P0219R1, P0317R1, P0392R0, P0430R2, P0492R2 Filesystem The contents of the Filesystems Technical Specification are now part of C++. The filesystems library allows portable interaction with directories and directory-like structures (listing directory contents, moving files, etc.). It is largely modelled on POSIX, but flexible enough to be implementable for a wide variety of systems.
P0024R2, P0336R1, P0394R4, P0452R1, P0467R2, P0502R0, P0518R1, P0523R1, P0574R1, P0623R0 Parallelism The contents of the Parallelism Technical Specification are now part of C++. This adds new overloads, taking an additional execution policy argument, to many algorithms, as well as entirely new algorithms (see below). Three execution policies are supported, which respectively provide sequential, parallel, and vectorized execution.
P0024R2 New algorithms The Parallelism Technical Specification adds several new algorithms to the standard library. They are motivated by their potential for efficient parallel execution, but are available in the usual simple form as well: for_each_n, reduce, transform_reduce, exclusive_scan, inclusive_scan, transform_exclusive_scan, transform_inclusive_scan. Note that reduce looks similar to the existing accumulate, but does not guarantee any particular order of operations.
P02202, P0254R2, P0403R1 New type: string_view (and basic_string_view) The new string_view class is the preferred interface vocabulary type for APIs that need to view a string without wanting to take ownership or to modify it. It is constructible from char pointers, but all other classes that are string-like should offer conversions to string_view.
P02202, P0032R3, P0504R0 New type: any The type any type-erases copyable objects. There are essentially three things you can do with an any: 1. put a value of type T into it. 2. Make a copy of it. 3. Ask it whether it contains a value of type U and get that value out, which succeeds if and only if U is T.
P0088R3, P0393R3, P0032R3, P0504R0, P0510R0 New class template: variant A variant models a disjoint union (or discriminated union). A value of variant<A, B, C> contains one of an A, a B, or a C at any one time.
P02202, P0307R2, P0032R3, P0504R0 New class template: optional An optional value. A optional<T> represents either a T value, or no value (which is signified by the tag type nullopt_t). In some respects this can be thought of as equivalent to variant<nullopt_t, T>, but with a purpose-built interface.
N4169 invoke A facility to uniformly invoke callable entities. This allows users to write libraries with the same behaviour as the standard’s magic INVOKE rule.
P0077R2, P0604R0 is_invocable, is_invocable_r, invoke_result Traits to reason about invocability and invocation results.
P0067R5 Elementary string conversions Functions to_chars, from_chars that produce or parse string representations of numbers. These are intended to form an efficient, low-level basis for a replacement for printf and iostream formatted operations. They follow idiomatic C++ algorithm style.
N3911 Alias template void_t template <class...> using void_t = void; Surprisingly useful for metaprogramming, to simplify use of SFINAE.
N4389 Alias template bool_constant template <bool B> using bool_constant = integral_constant<bool, B>
P0013R1 Logical operation metafunctions Variadic metafunctions conjunction, disjunction, and negation for metaprogramming. These traits short-circuit in the metaprogramming sense: template specializations that are not required to determine the result are not instantiated.
P0185R1 Traits for SFINAE-friendly swap New traits is_{,nothrow_}swappable, is_{,nothrow_}swappable_with.
LWG 2911 Trait is_aggregate Whether a type is an aggregate. Useful for example to tell whether a generic type should be list- or non-list-initialized.
P0258R2 Trait has_unique_object_representations This trait may be used to reason about whether certain value-based operations like comparison and hashing can be replaced with representation-based operations (e.g. memcmp).
P0007R1 as_const Given an lvalue x, as_const(x) returns the const-qualified version. Does not bind to rvalues.
N4280 Non-member size, data, empty The additional functions complement the existing free functions begin, end etc. to access containers and arrays in a uniform fashion. Note that unlike begin/end, the new functions are not customisation points for anything and are only provided for convenience.
P0025R0 clamp clamp(x, low, high) returns either x if x is within the interval [low, high], or the nearest bound otherwise.
P0295R0 gcd and lcm Number-theoretic functions to compute the greatest common divisor and least common multiple of two integers.
N4508 Class shared_mutex A reader-writer mutex, which can be locked in either shared or exclusive mode.
P0154R1 Interference sizes Two new implementation-defined constants hardware_{con,de}structive_interference_size that effectively allow the platform to document its cache line sizes so that users can avoid false sharing (destructive interference) and improve locality (constructive interference). Two separate constants are defined to support heterogeneous architectures.
P0220R1 Tuple apply Invokes a callable with arguments extracted from a given tuple.
P0209R2 Construction from tuples A new function template make_from_tuple that initializes a value of type T from the elements of a given tuple. It is like apply applied to a constructor.
P0005R4, P0358R1 Universal negator not_fn A call wrapper that negates its wrapped callable. This works with callables of any arity and replaces the old not1 and not2 wrappers.
P0220R1 Memory resources A new set of components comprised of a memory resource base class for dynamically selectable memory providers, as well as three concrete implementations (synchronized_pool_resource, unsynchronized_pool_resource, monotonic_buffer_resource). See next item for use cases.
P0220R1, P0337R0 A polymorphic allocator An allocator that uses a memory resource, which can be changed at runtime and is not part of the allocator type. Also contains convenience type aliases like std::pmr::vector<T> = std::vector<T, polymorphic_allocator<T>>.
P0220R1, P0253R1 Searcher functors Substring searcher functors implementing the Boyer-Moore and Boyer-Moore-Horspool algorithms, and a search algorithm using those functors.

Modifications to existing features

DocumentSummaryExamples, notes
N3928 Single-argument static_assert The static_assert declaration no longer requires a second argument: static_assert(N > 0);
N4230 Nested namespace declarations namespace foo::bar { /* ... */ }
N4051 Allow typename in template template parameters template <template <typename> typename Tmpl> struct X; Previously, template template parameters were required to use the keyword class.
P0184R0 Range-based for takes separate begin/end types The rewrite rule for for (decl : expr) now says auto __begin = begin-expr; auto __end = end-expr;, as opposed to auto __begin = begin-expr, __end = end-expr; before. This prepares the range-based for statement for the new Ranges (work in progress).
P0195R2 Pack expansion in using-declarations template <typename ...Args> struct X : Args... { using Args::f...; };
P0138R2 Construction for values of fixed enums A variable of a fixed enumeration E can now be defined with E e { 5 }; and no longer requires the the more cumbersome E e { E(5) };.
N4259 uncaught_exceptions() The function uncaught_exception is deprecated, the new function uncaught_exceptions returns a count rather than a boolean. The previous feature was effectively unusable; N4152 explains the details.
N4266 Attributes in namespaces and enumerators Namespaces and enumerators can now be annotated with attributes. This allows, for example, to deprecate namespaces or enumerators.
P0028R4 Attribute namespaces without repetition This simplifies the use of attribute namespace qualifications when a namespace is used repeatedly.
N4279 Improved insertion for unique-key maps m.try_emplace(key, arg1, arg2, arg3) does nothing if key already exists in the map, and otherwise inserts a new element constructed from the arguments. This interface guarantees that even if the arguments are bound to rvalue references, they are not moved from if the insertion does not take place.
P0084R2 Return type of emplace Sequence containers whose emplace{,_front,_back} member function templates used to return void now return a reference to the newly inserted element. (Associative containers are not affected, since their insertion functions have always returned iterators to the relevant element.)
P0083R3, P0508R0 Splicing maps and sets A new mechanism, node handles, has been added to the container library that allows transplanting elements between different map/set objects without touching the contained object. Moreover, this technique enables mutable access to key values of extracted nodes.
P0272R1 Non-const string::data There is now a non-const overload of basic_string::data that returns a mutable pointer. Moreover, C++17 allows writing to the null terminator, provided that the value zero is written. This makes the string classes a bit more convenient to use with C-style interfaces.
P0156R0, P0156R2 A variadic version of lock_guard called scoped_lock A new, variadic class template scoped_lock<Args...> that locks multiple lockable objects at once (using the same algorithm as lock) and releases them in the destructor. Initially it was suggested to simply change the definition of lock_guard to become variadic, but this was discovered to be a breaking change, and so instead we now have a new class template scoped_lock that is strictly superior to the old lock_guard and should be used instead.
P0006R0 Variable templates for traits For every standard type trait foo with a single, static member constant foo<Args...>::value, there is now a variable template foo_v<Args...>.
P0152R1 atomic::is_always_lock_free A new static member constant is_always_lock_free that documents whether the operations of a given atomic type are always lock-free. The existing non-static member function is_lock_free may give different answers for different values of the atomic type.
P0220R1, P0414R2 shared_ptr for arrays The class template shared_ptr now supports C-style arrays by passing T[] or T[N] as the template argument, and the constructor from a raw pointer will install an appropriate array deleter.
P0163R0 shared_ptr::weak_type The class shared_ptr<T> now has a member type weak_type which is weak_ptr<T>. This allows generic code to name the corresponding weak pointer type without having to destructure the shared pointer type.
P0030R1 Three-dimensional hypotenuse The three-dimensional hypotenuse hypot(x, y, z) is added as an additional set of overloads to <cmath> (but not to <math.h> and only to namespace std).
P0040R3 Further uninitialized algorithms Additional algorithms to create objects in uninitialized memory and to destroy objects. Separate versions for default- and value-initialization are included.
N4510 Incomplete type support for allocators This change relaxes the requirements on allocators to have complete value types, and allows, for example, recursive structures like: struct X { std::vector<X> data; };
P0092R1, P0505R0 Changes to <chrono> Adds floor, ceiling, division and rounding for time points; makes most member functions constexpr.
P0426R1 Constexpr for char_traits All specializations required for char_traits now have constexpr member functions length, compare, find and assign, allowing string views to be more widely used in constant expressions.
N4387 Improving pair and tuple This change makes the constructors of pair and tuple as explicit as the corresponding element type constructors.
P0435R1, P0548R1 Changes to common_type Because it’s not a new standard if we didn’t make changes to common_type

Miscellaneous

DocumentSummaryExamples, notes
P0063R3 C++ refers to C11 The C++ standard now refers normatively to C11 (ISO/IEC 9899:2011) as “The C Standard”. Not only does ISO require that references to other international standards refer to the latest published version, and not to a historic version, but this also gives us access to aligned_alloc, which is useful for the improvements to our dynamic memory management.
P0180R2 Reserved namespaces All top-level namespaces of the form stdX, where X is a sequence of digits, are reserved.
P0175R1 C library synopses A purely editorial change: all headers of the “C library” part of the standard library are now presented as complete synopses in the C++ standard document, rather than as just lists of names. This makes the changes in semantics from C easier to appreciate (e.g. additional overloads, overloads on language linkage).
N4262
P0134R0
P0391R0
N4284
Term “forwarding reference”
Term “default member initializer”
Term “templated entity”
Term “contiguous iterator”
These changes have no normative impact, but they establish official terminology for concepts that have so far only emerged from the language rules. Having precise and well-known terms simplifies talking about C++ and simplifies the specification.
P0346R1 Change “random number generator” to “random bit generator” Similarly, this change has no normative impact, but clarifies the design and intended use of this aspect of the <random> facilities.

Unlisted papers

The following papers were moved at committee meetings, but their contents are too specific to call out as separate features: N3922, N4089, N4258, N4261, N4268, N4277, N4285, P0017R1, P0031R0, P0033R1, P0074R0, P0136R1, P0250R3, P0270R3, P0283R2, P0296R2, P0418R2, P0503R0, P0509R1, P0513R0, P0516R0, P0517R0, P0558R1, P0599R1, P0607R0, P0612R0

The following papers contain issues that have been accepted as defect reports. CWG issues are handled by N4192, N4457, P0164R0, P0167R2, P0263R1, P0384R0, P0398R0, P0490R0, P0507R0, P0519R0, P0520R0, P0522R0, P0575R1, P0576R1, P0613R0, P0622R0. LWG issues are handled by N4245, N4366, N4383, N4525, P0165R0, P0165R1, P0165R2, P0165R2, P0165R3, P0165R4, P0304R1, P0397R0, P0610R0, P0625R0. Only specific issues may have been selected from each paper; the meeting minutes contain the details.

Assorted snippets demonstrating C++17

std::unordered_map<std::string, std::unique_ptr<Foo>> items; std::vector<std::unique_ptr<Foo>> standby; // If there is currently no item 'id', installs 'foo' as item 'id'. // Otherwise stores 'foo' for later use and puts it on standby. // Before C++17 void f(std::string id, std::unique_ptr<Foo> foo) {   auto it = items.find(id);   if (it == items.end()) {     auto p = items.emplace(std::move(id), std::move(foo));     p.first->second->launch();   } else {     standby.push_back(std::move(foo));     standby.back()->wait_for_notification();   }   // Notes:   // * Variable 'id' can no longer be used (moved-from); or...   // * ...would need to use parameter 'const string& id' and force copying.   // * Map lookup performed twice. Ordered map could use lower_bound + hint, but unordered map cannot.   // * (Cannot emplace unconditionally, because it might destroy *foo.) } // With C++17 void f(std::string_view id, std::unique_ptr<Foo> foo) {   if (auto [pos, inserted] = items.try_emplace(id, std::move(foo)); inserted) {     pos->second->launch();   } else {     standby.emplace_back(std::move(foo))->wait_for_notification();   } }

The next snippet illustrates the utility of template <auto> on the example of a class template which delegates a free function call to a member function bound to a class instance, and the member function is part of the delegate type.

// Before C++17 template <typename T, int (T::* MF)(int, int)>   // two params: one type, one non-type struct Delegate { /* ... */ }; int n = Delegate<MyComplexClass, &MyComplexClass::an_imporant_function>(&obj)(10, 20); // With C++17 template <auto> struct Delegate;                 // one (non-type) param template <typename T, int (T::* MF)(int, int)> struct Delegate<MF> { /* ... */ };               // implement as before, but as partial specialization int n = Delegate<&MyComplexClass::an_imporant_function>(&obj)(10, 20);

The next snippet shows the utility of fold expressions in generic code.

// Call f(n) for all f in the pack. template <typename ...F> void ApplyAll(int n, const F&... f) {   (f(n), ...); // unary fold (over the comma operator) } // Compute f(a, b) for each f in the pack and return the sum. template <typename ...F> int ApplyAndSum(int a, int b, const F&... f) {   return (f(a, b) + ... + 0); // binary fold }

The next snippet shows array support for shared pointers.

// Before C++17 std::shared_ptr<char> p(new char[N], std::default_delete<char[]>()); // would be wrong without the deleter // With C++17 std::shared_ptr<char[]> p(new char[N]); // deleter uses “delete[]”